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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:zhangjing3210.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用(yong)卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)吗?——加工工件特征(zheng)

加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)类(lei)型(xing)的(de)选(xuan)定需要考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围(wei)和(he)设(she)备价格等因(yin)素,根据所选(xuan)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件族 (组)进行。如果您的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件具有以(yi)下特征,则应选(xuan)择(ze)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin):加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两(liang)面以(yi)上(shang)的(de)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件或加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径向辐射状排列的(de)孔系(xi)、面,如箱体(ti)类(lei)、壳体(ti)类(lei)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件等,应选(xuan)择(ze)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);被加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件的(de)位置精度要求较(jiao)高(gao),宜(yi)选(xuan)用高(gao)精密卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);零(ling)(ling)(ling)件在一(yi)次(ci)装(zhuang)夹中(zhong)需要完成多面加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi),可(ke)选(xuan)择(ze)立卧复合(he)式五面加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)。当(dang)然,上(shang)述各点也不是绝(jue)对的(de),一(yi)方(fang)面是由于加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)正朝(chao)着复合(he)化(hua)方(fang)向发展(zhan),另一(yi)方(fang)面选(xuan)型(xing)时(shi)要综合(he)考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)生产(chan)效率(lv)、加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要求和(he)设(she)备资金等因(yin)素,要以(yi)性价比来衡量选(xuan)型(xing)方(fang)案的(de)合(he)理性。

建议(yi):采购用户(hu)需(xu)要根(gen)据加工(gong)对象(xiang)、加工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)、加工(gong)范围等特征来(lai)确定是否使(shi)(shi)用卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心以(yi)及使(shi)(shi)用什么样(yang)的卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工(gong)作台(tai)尺寸

这是卧式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)主(zhu)参数,主(zhu)要取决于典型(xing)零件的(de)外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)、装(zhuang)夹(jia)方式等(deng)。应(ying)选(xuan)择比(bi)(bi)典型(xing)零件外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)稍大一(yi)些的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台,以便(bian)留(liu)出安(an)装(zhuang)夹(jia)具(ju)所(suo)需的(de)空(kong)间,保证(zheng)零件在(zai)其(qi)上面(mian)能够顺利装(zhuang)夹(jia),此外还应(ying)考(kao)虑工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台的(de)承载(zai)能力(li)、T形槽数量和(he)尺(chi)寸(cun)等(deng),小尺(chi)寸(cun)的(de)比(bi)(bi)较通用,比(bi)(bi)如站(zhan)内的(de)卧式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议:目前市场上的卧式加工(gong)(gong)中心工(gong)(gong)作台尺寸多为1000以下的,能(neng)够满足(zu)大(da)多数用(yong)户(hu)的需求。

(2)坐(zuo)标(biao)轴行程

最基本(ben)的(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)(zuo)标轴(zhou)是(shi)X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其行程(cheng)(cheng)和工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)(tai)尺寸有相应的(de)(de)(de)比例关系(xi),工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)(tai)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)大小基本(ben)上确定(ding)了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)空(kong)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)大小。如(ru)个(ge)别零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)尺寸大于(yu)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)行程(cheng)(cheng)时(shi)(shi),则必须要求零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)区域处(chu)于(yu)机床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)行程(cheng)(cheng)范围之内,此外还要考虑零(ling)(ling)件(jian)是(shi)否(fou)与机床(chuang)交换刀具的(de)(de)(de)空(kong)间(jian)干(gan)涉、与机床(chuang)防护(hu)罩等附件(jian)发生干(gan)涉等系(xi)列问(wen)题。而对需要多轴(zhou)联(lian)动加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin) (如(ru)增加(jia)(jia)回转坐(zuo)(zuo)标A、B、C或附加(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)(zuo)标U、V、W),如(ru)四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联(lian)动卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),这就需要特殊订(ding)货(huo),同时(shi)(shi)必须对相应配套的(de)(de)(de)编程(cheng)(cheng)软件(jian)、测(ce)量手段以及机床(chuang)价格等有全面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)考虑和安排。

建(jian)议:采购用户需要根据加(jia)(jia)工(gong)工(gong)件规格选择不同坐标(biao)轴行程的卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心,多(duo)轴联(lian)动需要特殊定制。

(3)主轴(zhou)电动机功(gong)率与(yu)转矩(ju)

它反(fan)映(ying)了(le)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)切(qie)削(xue)效(xiao)率,也从一(yi)个侧面反(fan)映(ying)了(le)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)切(qie)削(xue)刚性和机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)整体刚度。主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动机(ji)(ji)功率在同类规(gui)格(ge)的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心上(shang)可以有各种不同的(de)配置,同类规(gui)格(ge)的(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转速不同的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心,主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动机(ji)(ji)功率可以相差很大。

建议:采购(gou)用户应根(gen)据自身典(dian)型零件毛坯余量(liang)(liang)大小、切削能(neng)力 (单位时间金属切削量(liang)(liang))、要求(qiu)达到(dao)的(de)加工精度、实际能(neng)配置的(de)刀具等因素(su)综合(he)选择。

(4)主(zhu)轴转速(su)与进给速(su)度

需要(yao)高速(su)切(qie)削(xue)或超低(di)速(su)切(qie)削(xue)时,应关注主轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)范围。特别是高速(su)切(qie)削(xue)时,既要(yao)有高的(de)主轴(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su),同(tong)时也要(yao)具备与主轴(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)相匹配的(de)进给(ji)速(su)度。目(mu)前卧式(shi)加(jia)工中心(xin)高速(su)化趋(qu)势发展很(hen)快,主轴(zhou)(zhou)从每分钟几(ji)千转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)到几(ji)万转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan),直线坐标(biao)快速(su)移动速(su)度从10—20/min上升(sheng)到80m/min以上,当然其功能部(bu)件如电主轴(zhou)(zhou)、直线电动机、直线滚动导(dao)轨(gui)、主轴(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)承(cheng)等(deng)及相配套的(de)光(guang)栅尺、刀具等(deng)附件价格也都相应上升(sheng),甚至很(hen)昂贵。

建议:采(cai)购用户必须(xu)根据自身的技术能(neng)力(li)(li)和配(pei)套能(neng)力(li)(li)合(he)理作出卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的合(he)理选型(xing)。

(5)刀库容(rong)量

可以根据被加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分析结果(guo)来确定(ding)所需(xu)(xu)数量,通常以典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在一次(ci)装(zhuang)夹中所需(xu)(xu)刀(dao)具数量来确定(ding)刀(dao)库的容量,卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心以选(xuan)用(yong)40把(ba)刀(dao)左(zuo)右的刀(dao)库为宜。同时要关注最大刀(dao)具直(zhi)径与长度以及最大刀(dao)具重量等(deng)。用(yong)于(yu)FMC或(huo)FMS的卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心,应选(xuan)择大容量刀(dao)库,甚(shen)至配置可交换(huan)刀(dao)库。

建议:普通卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心选择40把刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库即(ji)够用,用于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心应(ying)选择大容量(liang)刀(dao)库。

3我需要选用什么精度(du)的(de)卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心?——精度(du)的(de)选定

加工中心的(de)(de)精度(du)等(deng)级主(zhu)要(yao)根(gen)据典型零件(jian)关键部位的(de)(de)精度(du)来确定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精度(du)主(zhu)要(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)位精度(du)、重(zhong)复定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)位精度(du)和铣(xian)圆(yuan)精度(du),特(te)别是重(zhong)复定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)位精度(du),它反映了坐标(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)位稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)性(xing),是衡量该轴是否(fou)稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)基(ji)本(ben)指标(biao)(biao)。特(te)别值(zhi)(zhi)得注意(yi)的(de)(de)是,选型订(ding)货时必须全面分(fen)析,不(bu)能简(jian)单地看产(chan)品(pin)样本(ben)所(suo)列的(de)(de)精度(du)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi),因为标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)、规定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)、检(jian)测方(fang)法(fa)不(bu)同(tong)(tong),数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)含义(yi)就不(bu)同(tong)(tong)。刊物(wu)、样本(ben)、合格证(zheng)所(suo)列出的(de)(de)单位长度(du)上允许的(de)(de)正(zheng)负值(zhi)(zhi)(一(yi)般为正(zheng)负0.05)常常是不(bu)明确的(de)(de),订(ding)货时要(yao)特(te)别注意(yi),一(yi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)要(yao)弄清(qing)是IOS(国(guo)际(ji)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)化(hua)组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)机(ji)床制(zhi)造(zao)商协(xie)会标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))还(hai)是NAS(美国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))等(deng),进(jin)而(er)分(fen)析各(ge)种不(bu)同(tong)(tong)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)所(suo)规定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)检(jian)测计算方(fang)法(fa)和检(jian)测环境条件(jian),才不(bu)会产(chan)生误解。

铣圆精度是(shi)综(zong)合评价卧式加工中心有关数控(kong)轴的伺服跟(gen)随运动特(te)性和数控(kong)系统插(cha)补(bu)功(gong)能(neng)的主(zhu)要(yao)指(zhi)标之一。不论典型(xing)零件(jian)是(shi)否有此需要(yao),为了(le)将来(lai)可能(neng)的需要(yao)及更好地控(kong)制精度,必须重视这一指(zhi)标。

要(yao)特(te)别注意区别加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度与机床精(jing)(jing)度两个不同的(de)(de)(de)概念。将生(sheng)产厂家(jia)样(yang)本上或(huo)产品合格(ge)证(zheng)上的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置精(jing)(jing)度当作卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度是错(cuo)误(wu)的(de)(de)(de)。样(yang)本或(huo)合格(ge)证(zheng)上标明(ming)的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置精(jing)(jing)度是加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)本身的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度,而加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度是包括(kuo)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)本身所(suo)允许误(wu)差(cha)(cha)在内的(de)(de)(de)整个工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)系(xi)统各种因素所(suo)产生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)误(wu)差(cha)(cha)总和。整个工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)系(xi)统误(wu)差(cha)(cha)产生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)原因是很(hen)复杂的(de)(de)(de),很(hen)难用(yong)线(xian)性关系(xi)定(ding)量(liang)表达。选型时,可参考工(gong)(gong)序能力系(xi)数Cp的(de)(de)(de)评定(ding)方法来作为机床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度的(de)(de)(de)选型依据(ju)。一般而言,Cp应大(da)于1.33。

站内(nei)高精密(mi)的几款卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心性能都不错。

建议:采购用户(hu)在挑选不同精(jing)度的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心时,需要考虑:不同标准对应的(de)单位长度含义;重视铣圆(yuan)精(jing)度指标;区别加工(gong)精(jing)度和(he)机床精(jing)度。

4我应该(gai)选择哪(na)种数控(kong)系统?——数控(kong)系统的选定

数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)分(fen)为基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)与(yu)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),可以从(cong)操作方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、用户功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)制方(fang)(fang)式(shi)、驱动形式(shi)、反(fan)馈形式(shi)、接口形式(shi)、检测与(yu)测量、报警与(yu)提示、故障诊断等方(fang)(fang)面(mian)综合衡量。基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须提供的(de)(de),而(er)只有当用户选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)了选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)后(hou),厂家(jia)才会(hui)另(ling)行(xing)提供并另(ling)行(xing)加价,且定(ding)价一般较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。总体而(er)言(yan),数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)一定(ding)要(yao)(yao)根(gen)据加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)需要(yao)(yao)来选(xuan)择(ze)(ze),订(ding)购时(shi)既要(yao)(yao)把需要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)订(ding)全(quan),不能(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同(tong)时(shi)避免使用率不高(gao)而(er)造成浪费,还需注意各(ge)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)之间的(de)(de)关联性(xing)。另(ling)一方(fang)(fang)面(mian),在可供选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)中(zhong)(zhong),如SIEMENS系(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国产华中(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)等,性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)低(di)差(cha)别很大,价格亦(yi)相差(cha)很大,进口系(xi)统(tong)(tong)或(huo)国产系(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦(yi)决(jue)定(ding)其(qi)价格的(de)(de)高(gao)低(di)。总体上来看,法(fa)兰克(ke)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)性(xing)价比(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),国内(nei)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使用比(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。站(zhan)内(nei)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使用法(fa)兰克(ke)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)也(ye)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)多(duo)(duo),比(bi)(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)好(hao)的(de)(de)选(xuan)择(ze)(ze)。多(duo)(duo)台卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)型时(shi),应尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)用同(tong)一厂家(jia)的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong),这样(yang)操作、编(bian)程、维(wei)修都比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)方(fang)(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需要(yao)(yao)选择几台(tai)卧式加工中心(xin)能(neng)达到的(de)我(wo)的(de)产(chan)量要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)?——生产(chan)能(neng)力的(de)估(gu)算

选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型时(shi),必须要(yao)考虑(lv)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)能(neng)(neng)达到(dao)(dao)的(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)能(neng)(neng)力(li),即要(yao)求选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)在(zai)(zai)一(yi)(yi)年(nian)之内能(neng)(neng)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典(dian)型零(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)(chu)多少数(shu)量的(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件。要(yao)得到(dao)(dao)这些数(shu)据必须对每一(yi)(yi)种确(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型零(ling)件进行加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生产(chan)节拍的(de)(de)(de)估算。一(yi)(yi)般步骤为(wei):首(shou)先,根据已(yi)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型零(ling)件进行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分(fen)析,初(chu)步确(que)定(ding)一(yi)(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线(xian),在(zai)(zai)这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线(xian)中(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)出(chu)(chu)准备在(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu);第二,根据现用的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu),估算出(chu)(chu)每道在(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)单个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间;第三,由每个(ge)单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时(shi)间计(ji)算出(chu)(chu)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)零(ling)件在(zai)(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)总时(shi)间,进而计(ji)算出(chu)(chu)年(nian)产(chan)量即生产(chan)能(neng)(neng)力(li)。如果估算结果达不到(dao)(dao)目标(biao)值,但相(xiang)差不大(da),则可以通(tong)过修改(gai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法加(jia)(jia)以调(diao)整;如果相(xiang)差很大(da),则应考虑(lv)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)台数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)户需(xu)要根据工(gong)(gong)件(jian)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时和生产(chan)节拍的估算,决(jue)定卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心配备(bei)台(tai)数(shu)。

6卧式加工中心有好多选(xuan)配(pei)的附(fu)件我应该如何选(xuan)配(pei)?——其(qi)他功能部件及附(fu)件的选(xuan)定

(1)坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)(zhou)数和联动轴(zhou)(zhou)数

坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)(zhou)数(shu)和(he)联动轴(zhou)(zhou)数(shu)均应满足典(dian)型零件加(jia)工要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)。一(yi)般(ban)情(qing)况下,同厂家、同规格、同等精度的卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心,增加(jia)一(yi)个标(biao)(biao)(biao)准坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)(zhou),价格约增加(jia)30%—50%。尽管增加(jia)坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)(zhou)数(shu)可(ke)以强化(hua)加(jia)工中心的功能,是机床上档次的标(biao)(biao)(biao)志之一(yi),但最终还是要(yao)(yao)在工艺(yi)要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)和(he)资金条件下平衡决定。

(2)工作台

卧(wo)式加工中心可配(pei)置用(yong)于分度的回转(zhuan)工作(zuo)台(tai)和数控(kong)回转(zhuan)工作(zuo)台(tai),后(hou)者能(neng)够实现任意分度,作(zuo)为B轴与其他轴联(lian)动控(kong)制。回转(zhuan)工作(zuo)台(tai)配(pei)置与否(fou)以及如何配(pei)置必须以实际需要来确定(ding),以经济(ji)、实用(yong)为目的。

(3)自动换(huan)刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)选择主要(yao)考虑(lv)换(huan)刀(dao)时间与(yu)可靠(kao)性。过(guo)分强调换(huan)刀(dao)时间会使加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)价格大幅度提(ti)高(gao)并使故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)率上升。据(ju)统计,加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)中(zhong)约有50%与(yu)ATC有关,因此,在满足使用要(yao)求的(de)前提(ti)下,尽量选用可靠(kao)性高(gao)的(de)ATC,以降(jiang)低故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)率和整机成(cheng)本

(4)必要的附(fu)件、配套件

选(xuan)(xuan)型时,还应(ying)注意选(xuan)(xuan)用一(yi)些(xie)配套件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian),尽量(liang)避(bi)免因缺(que)少(shao)一(yi)个(ge)几(ji)万元就能购买的(de)(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)而(er)影响卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)正常运行(xing)。慎重选(xuan)(xuan)择刀柄(bing)和(he)(he)刀具(ju)(ju)也(ye)是(shi)保(bao)证卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)正常运行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)关键,最佳的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择办(ban)法应(ying)是(shi)根据典型零件(jian)所需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)品种和(he)(he)数量(liang)来(lai)确(que)定,并在使用中(zhong)(zhong)陆续添置。在卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)构成(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong),排屑装置、防(fang)护(hu)装置和(he)(he)对刀装置 (如(ru)刀具(ju)(ju)预(yu)调仪)等均(jun)是(shi)必(bi)(bi)需(xu)的(de)(de)(de),对一(yi)些(xie)尽管不是(shi)必(bi)(bi)需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)配套件(jian),但如(ru)果价格(ge)不高,对使用带(dai)来(lai)很多方便(bian),也(ye)应(ying)尽量(liang)选(xuan)(xuan)用,如(ru)附(fu)件(jian)铣头、储刀料架、运刀具(ju)(ju)车、装卸器(qi)等。

建议:配件越高,能实现的功能越多,但价格也越贵,采购用(yong)户需要根(gen)据加(jia)工需求酌(zhuo)情选配。

7卧式加工中(zhong)心选型时还(hai)有什么其他需(xu)要(yao)注(zhu)意的?——需(xu)要(yao)注(zhu)意的一(yi)些问题

(1)结(jie)构设(she)计

加工中心对其床身、立柱、工作(zuo)台、主轴以及刀库等(deng)功(gong)能部件的结构设计有(you)着很高(gao)(gao)的要(yao)求(qiu),以达(da)到其高(gao)(gao)强度、高(gao)(gao)刚度、高(gao)(gao)抗振(zhen)性(xing)和稳定性(xing)的目(mu)的。选型时,应特(te)别注意把(ba)其结构作(zuo)为(wei)一项重要(yao)的具体内容来(lai)进行要(yao)求(qiu)与(yu)考虑(lv)。

(2)功能与加工的适(shi)应性(xing)

虽然加工中心可以(yi)进(jin)行钻、扩、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃(nai)至车削(xue) (如车铣复合加工中心)等多种加工,但是(shi)在具体选择时,还应(ying)根据(ju)具体需要来考虑机床的功能与(yu)加工是(shi)否相适(shi)应(ying)等问题。要注(zhu)意以(yi)下几点:

A、复杂(za)曲(qu)线加(jia)工(gong)时,要(yao)考虑(lv)CNC是否有(you)所(suo)需要(yao)的(de)曲(qu)线插补(bu)功能,或(huo)选择什么方式逼近加(jia)工(gong)曲(qu)线并保证所(suo)要(yao)求的(de)表面粗糙度。三维加(jia)工(gong)时,要(yao)考虑(lv)选择适(shi)合(he)的(de)刀具结构(gou),还(hai)要(yao)考虑(lv)程序(xu)编(bian)制(zhi)能力,如有(you)必(bi)要(yao)则(ze)必(bi)须(xu)配(pei)备自(zi)动编(bian)程装(zhuang)(zhuang)置或(huo)后置处理(li)编(bian)程装(zhuang)(zhuang)置。

B、需要进(jin)行(xing)(xing)螺(luo)纹切削(xue)(xue) (非攻(gong)螺(luo)纹方式)时,不仅要看是否有(you)螺(luo)纹切削(xue)(xue)功(gong)(gong)能、螺(luo)旋线插补(bu)功(gong)(gong)能和主轴(zhou)转动与进(jin)给同步功(gong)(gong)能,还要考虑机床是否有(you)径向进(jin)给装置(zhi)、是否有(you)主轴(zhou)在旋转方向上(shang)任意角度位置(zhi)准确(que)定位功(gong)(gong)能。否则,仅在数控系统中用(yong)(yong)了螺(luo)纹切削(xue)(xue)功(gong)(gong)能仍(reng)然无法进(jin)行(xing)(xing)螺(luo)纹切削(xue)(xue)C、采用(yong)(yong)金刚铰、浮动镗和挤压加工(gong)等特种加工(gong)时,既(ji)要考虑适宜的自动换刀的条(tiao)件(jian)(jian),又要考虑选择合适的刀具结构和切削(xue)(xue)用(yong)(yong)量,应尽可能在购买主机时一并购置(zhi)部(bu)分易损部(bu)件(jian)(jian)及(ji)其(qi)他附(fu)件(jian)(jian)等。

D、如果(guo)有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规划(hua),或要(yao)进行网络制(zhi)造(zao),则要(yao)注意通(tong)信功能,应选(xuan)择具有RS—232、RS—485甚(shen)至MAP网络通(tong)信、CAN总(zong)线(xian)等接口的系统。

(3)运转的(de)可(ke)靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用(yong)户在选型时,需要对卧式加工中心整体(ti)的(de)结构设计、可靠性以及价(jia)加工适应性有客观的(de)认识。


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