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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:zhangjing3210.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)由主(zhu)体(ti)、驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)系(xi)统和(he)控(kong)制(zhi)系(xi)统三个基(ji)本(ben)部分组(zu)(zu)成。按机(ji)器人结(jie)构(gou)分类为直(zhi)角(jiao)坐(zuo)标型(xing),机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)沿(yan)二维直(zhi)角(jiao)坐(zuo)标系(xi)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。主(zhu)体(ti)部分通常(chang)采(cai)用龙门式(shi)结(jie)构(gou),由y向(xiang)横梁(liang)与(yu)导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)(gui)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕、十(shi)字滑(hua)座(zuo)、立柱、过渡(du)连接板(ban)和(he)基(ji)座(zuo)等部分组(zu)(zu)成,z向(xiang)的(de)直(zhi)线运动(dong)(dong)(dong)皆为交(jiao)流伺服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)通过蜗轮减速器驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)齿轮与(yu)y向(xiang)横梁(liang)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕上固定的(de)齿条作滚动(dong)(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)沿(yan)导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)(gui)快速运动(dong)(dong)(dong)。移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)为质量较(jiao)轻的(de)十(shi)字滑(hua)座(zuo)和(he)z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕,滑(hua)枕采(cai)用由铝合金拉制(zhi)的(de)型(xing)材。横梁(liang)采(cai)用方钢型(xing)材,在横梁(liang)上安装有导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)(gui)和(he)齿条,通过滚轮与(yu)导(dao)(dao)轨(gui)(gui)接触,整个机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)都悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于(yu)桁架机械手(shou)输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)快,加速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)大,加减速(su)时间短(duan)。当输(shu)送较重的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)时,惯量(liang)大,因此(ci),伺服驱动(dong)电机要(yao)(yao)(yao)有(you)(you)足(zu)够(gou)(gou)的(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)和(he)(he)(he)(he)制动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能力,支撑元件(jian)也要(yao)(yao)(yao)有(you)(you)足(zu)够(gou)(gou)的(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)(du)(du)及(ji)强度(du)(du)(du)(du)。只有(you)(you)这样(yang),才能使(shi)伺服电动(dong)机满足(zu)桁架机械手(shou)输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)高响(xiang)应(ying)、高刚度(du)(du)(du)(du)及(ji)高精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求。在选择(ze)合适伺服电动(dong)机的(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况下,根据物(wu)料运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)(he)(he)(he)运(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)(xing)节拍(pai),计(ji)算(suan)出伺服系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)和(he)(he)(he)(he)轨迹,对驱动(dong)器PID参数(shu)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)动(dong)态调整(zheng)。桁架机械手(shou)根据接收到的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)、速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)指令,经(jing)变(bian)化、放大并(bing)调整(zheng)处(chu)理(li)后,传递给运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)单元,通过光纤传感器对运(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)(xing)状态进(jin)行(xing)(xing)实时检测,在高速(su)搬运(yun)(yun)(yun)过程中(zhong),运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)在极(ji)短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)时间内到达给定的(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du),并(bing)能在高速(su)行(xing)(xing)程中(zhong)瞬间准停,通过高分辩率绝(jue)对式编码器的(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)(yun)(yun)算(suan),控制机械误差和(he)(he)(he)(he)测量(liang)误差对运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。由于(yu)被(bei)输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)不(bu)同,质量(liang)也不(bu)同,因此(ci),桁架机械手(shou)有(you)(you)多(duo)种(zhong)规格(ge)和(he)(he)(he)(he)系列。在选择(ze)时,根据被(bei)输(shu)送工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)质量(liang),加工的(de)(de)(de)节拍(pai)来(lai)选取。但机械手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)手(shou)臂,夹(jia)持方(fang)式,则根据被(bei)输(shu)送工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及(ji)机床夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方(fang)式来(lai)设计(ji)(见图2)。

机(ji)械手(shou)能(neng)够(gou)借助(zhu)可(ke)编程序来处理和(he)(he)执行任务(wu)。机(ji)械手(shou)主要(yao)由手(shou)图 1 臂、回转装置、运动部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱动部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)组成。通(tong)过对工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)外形(xing)或工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)上定(ding)(ding)位支撑点定(ding)(ding)位夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)。例如(ru),在汽车发(fa)动机(ji)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)自动线(xian)物流输送(song)中(zhong),桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)的(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)会(hui)根(gen)据(ju)缸体、缸盖(gai)、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)外形(xing)特点,选(xuan)取不(bu)同(tong)的(de)定(ding)(ding)位和(he)(he)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)方式(shi)。柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)机(ji)械手(shou)上采用(yong)气缸和(he)(he)电机(ji)进行定(ding)(ding)位和(he)(he)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)的(de)切(qie)换驱动,一(yi)套(tao)机(ji)械手(shou)可(ke)完成不(bu)同(tong)品(pin)(pin)种的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)可(ke)根(gen)据(ju)产(chan)品(pin)(pin)质量和(he)(he)外形(xing)的(de)大小采用(yong)系(xi)列(lie)化(hua)设计,机(ji)械手(shou)上的(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)安装方式(shi)相同(tong),针对不(bu)同(tong)系(xi)列(lie)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只(zhi)需(xu)切(qie)换相应的(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)即可(ke),满足快(kuai)速切(qie)换的(de)需(xu)要(yao)。这样(yang),当加工(gong)(gong)(gong)不(bu)同(tong)品(pin)(pin)种的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只(zhi)须变换夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)就可(ke)实(shi)现(xian),提高了桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)的(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)化(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手输送装置的发(fa)展及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了(le)(le)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)两个时代(dai)。就目(mu)前(qian)而(er)言, 在国(guo)内二者均有之(zhi)。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分为(wei)棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪、摆杆(gan)、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形式(shi)(shi)。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展,由其(qi)(qi)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代(dai)组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它(ta)以(yi)(yi)适应(ying)小批量(liang)多品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)优(you)点,得到市场的(de)(de)(de)广泛认(ren)可,并(bing)称其(qi)(qi)为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种(zhong)以(yi)(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就其(qi)(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)或输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可谓是(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有了(le)(le)飞(fei)跃(yue),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形式(shi)(shi)以(yi)(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou))并(bing)存,或纯柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)全(quan)部由桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)组(zu)成(cheng),这是(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)配以(yi)(yi)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又(you)称之(zhi)为(wei)敏(min)捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏(min)捷(jie)制(zhi)造系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)组(zu)成(cheng)部分。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)可根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随意改(gai)变(bian)(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang)位置(zhi)不再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)或步(bu)距(ju)(ju)倍(bei)数的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进(jin)行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速(su)度也(ye)可根据生产(chan)节拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)距(ju)(ju)离而(er)改(gai)变(bian)(bian)。而(er)真正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)一面是(shi)(shi),当(dang)(dang)被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品改(gai)变(bian)(bian)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部分不会不适应(ying)而(er)全(quan)部更(geng)换,只要(yao)改(gai)变(bian)(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程序(xu)和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)局部结构(gou)即可。采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先(xian)进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整(zheng)(zheng)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一。因此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)才(cai)在当(dang)(dang)今柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越来越多地被采(cai)用(yong),使整(zheng)(zheng)个生产(chan)过(guo)程通(tong)过(guo)信息流系(xi)统(tong)进(jin)行(xing)控制(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong),所(suo)需(xu)各(ge)种(zhong)信息收集、处理(li)、反馈,并(bing)通(tong)过(guo)电子计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其(qi)(qi)他(ta)控制(zhi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压(ya)、气压(ya)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)或运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备(bei)实(shi)行(xing)分级控制(zhi)。信息流系(xi)统(tong)分为(wei)由中(zhong)(zhong)央管理(li)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控制(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元(yuan)控制(zhi)计(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)(yi)及信息传(chuan)送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)。目(mu)前(qian),汽车制(zhi)造业中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖(gai)及曲(qu)轴等大批量(liang)关键零件的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采(cai)用(yong)了(le)(le)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距(ju)

当下,我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)很快,技术水(shui)平(ping)有了(le)很大的(de)(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高,与国(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距变得(de)越来越小(xiao),甚(shen)至有些机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)外相(xiang)比(bi)已经没有什么差(cha)距。特(te)别(bie)是国(guo)家重大科技专项的(de)(de)(de)(de)开展(zhan),为我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)档次(ci)上(shang)水(shui)平(ping)提(ti)高了(le)加(jia)(jia)(jia)速(su)度,成绩(ji)显(xian)而易(yi)见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这几年发展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)别(bie)快,但柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)平(ping)和(he)(he)(he)档次(ci),较国(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距还很明显(xian),国(guo)外采(cai)(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)较为普遍(bian),而国(guo)内(nei)(nei)却为数不多,国(guo)内(nei)(nei)庞大的(de)(de)(de)(de)汽车生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)市(shi)场(chang)所(suo)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大多从(cong)国(guo)外进(jin)(jin)口。如无(wu)锡(xi)柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)厂(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)(gang)体缸(gang)(gang)盖柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)GROB公司(si)总承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)(xian)检具(ju)、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)及(ji)珩(heng)磨机(ji)(ji)组成。输(shu)送(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)空中桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手和(he)(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)(song)。仅以汽车制造业而言(yan),国(guo)内(nei)(nei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),采(cai)(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可数。大连(lian)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团和(he)(he)(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团等生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)该方(fang)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),并在生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)实际(ji)中得(de)到了(le)应用(yong)。图4是大连(lian)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集团生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)体加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两(liang)(liang)种缸(gang)(gang)体,分别(bie)为四缸(gang)(gang)和(he)(he)(he)六缸(gang)(gang),其输(shu)送(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)空中桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手和(he)(he)(he)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)两(liang)(liang)端(duan)为机(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形式。桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手两(liang)(liang)个,一个上(shang)料(liao),一个下料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)(de)成功,标志着我国(guo)国(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)际(ji)水(shui)准迈(mai)进(jin)(jin)。

上(shang)述提及的(de)(de)只是(shi)数量(liang)上(shang)的(de)(de)比(bi)较,其(qi)实真正的(de)(de)原因还是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)技术水平与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一定的(de)(de)差距。柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动线(xian)采用的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou),也是(shi)从(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进(jin)口的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内还没有专门生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)厂家。如今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一等一些桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)厂家的(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动线(xian)带(dai)来了(le)希望,进(jin)而缩小(xiao)了(le)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)在(zai)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)方面的(de)(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)在(zai)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动线(xian)的(de)(de)应用也越来越多,从(cong)而打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场(chang)被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄(long)断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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